Cisco CCNA Packet Tracer Ultimate labs: DHCP Snooping: Answers Part 1

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DHCP snooping is a security feature that acts like a firewall between untrusted hosts and trusted DHCP servers. The DHCP snooping feature performs the following activities:

•Validates DHCP messages received from untrusted sources and filters out invalid messages.

•Rate-limits DHCP traffic from trusted and untrusted sources.

•Builds and maintains the DHCP snooping binding database, which contains information about untrusted hosts with leased IP addresses.

•Utilizes the DHCP snooping binding database to validate subsequent requests from untrusted hosts.

Other security features, such as dynamic ARP inspection (DAI), also use information stored in the DHCP snooping binding database.

DHCP snooping is enabled on a per-VLAN basis. By default, the feature is inactive on all VLANs. You can enable the feature on a single VLAN or a range of VLANs.

The DHCP snooping feature is implemented in software on the route processor (RP). Therefore, all DHCP messages for enabled VLANs are intercepted in the PFC and directed to the RP for processing.

Trusted and Untrusted Sources
The DHCP snooping feature determines whether traffic sources are trusted or untrusted. An untrusted source may initiate traffic attacks or other hostile actions. To prevent such attacks, the DHCP snooping feature filters messages and rate-limits traffic from untrusted sources.

In an enterprise network, devices under your administrative control are trusted sources. These devices include the switches, routers, and servers in your network. Any device beyond the firewall or outside your network is an untrusted source. Host ports and unknown DHCP servers are generally treated as untrusted sources.

A DHCP server that is on your network without your knowledge on an untrusted port is called a spurious DHCP server. A spurious DHCP server is any piece of equipment that is loaded with DHCP server enabled. Some examples are desktop systems and laptop systems that are loaded with DHCP server enabled, or wireless access points honoring DHCP requests on the wired side of your network. If spurious DHCP servers remain undetected, you will have difficulties troubleshooting a network outage. You can detect spurious DHCP servers by sending dummy DHCPDISCOVER packets out to all of the DHCP servers so that a response is sent back to the switch.

In a service provider environment, any device that is not in the service provider network is an untrusted source (such as a customer switch). Host ports are untrusted sources.

In the switch, you indicate that a source is trusted by configuring the trust state of its connecting interface.

The default trust state of all interfaces is untrusted. You must configure DHCP server interfaces as trusted. You can also configure other interfaces as trusted if they connect to devices (such as switches or routers) inside your network. You usually do not configure host port interfaces as trusted.

  • David Bombal