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The weight attribute is a Cisco-defined attribute. This attribute uses weight to select a best path. The weight is assigned locally to the router. The value only makes sense to the specific router. The value is not propagated or carried through any of the route updates. A weight can be a number from 0 to 65,535. Paths that the router originates have a weight of 32,768 by default, and other paths have a weight of 0.
Routes with a higher weight value have preference when multiple routes to the same destination exist.
The metric attribute also has the name MULTI_EXIT_DISCRIMINATOR, MED (BGP4), or INTER_AS (BGP3). The attribute is a hint to external neighbors about the path preference into an AS. The attribute provides a dynamic way to influence another AS in the way to reach a certain route when there are multiple entry points into that AS. A lower metric value is preferred more.
Unlike local preference, metric is exchanged between ASs. A metric is carried into an AS but does not leave the AS. When an update enters the AS with a certain metric, that metric is used to make decisions inside the AS. When the same update passes on to a third AS, that metric returns to 0. The diagram in this section shows the set of metric. The metric default value is 0.
Unless a router receives other directions, the router compares metrics for paths from neighbors in the same AS. In order for the router to compare metrics from neighbors that come from different ASs, you need to issue the special configuration command bgp always-compare-med on the router.
Note: There are two BGP configuration commands that can influence the multi-exit discriminator (MED)-based path selection. The commands are the bgp deterministic-med command and the bgp always-compare-med command. An issue of the bgp deterministic-med command ensures the comparison of the MED variable at route choice when different peers advertise in the same AS. An issue of the bgp always-compare-med command ensures the comparison of the MED for paths from neighbors in different ASs. The bgp always-compare-med command is useful when multiple service providers or enterprises agree on a uniform policy for how to set MED. Refer to How the bgp deterministic-med Command Differs from the bgp always-compare-med Command to understand how these commands influence BGP path selection.
Route Filtering and Manipulation
Route filtering is a method for selectively identifying routes that are advertised or received from neighbor routers. Route filtering may be used to manipulate traffic flows, reduce memory utilization, or to improve security. For example, it is common for ISPs to deploy route filters on BGP peerings to customers. Ensuring that only the customer routes are allowed over the peering link prevents the customer from accidentally becoming a transit AS on the Internet. Filtering of routes within BGP is accomplished with filter-lists, prefix-lists, or route-maps on IOS and NX-OS devices.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is classified as a path vector protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.
BGP may be used for routing within an autonomous system. In this application it is referred to as Interior Border Gateway Protocol, Internal BGP, or iBGP. In contrast, the Internet application of the protocol may be referred to as Exterior Border Gateway Protocol, External BGP, or eBGP.
BGP neighbors, called peers, are established by manual configuration between routers to create a TCP session on port 179. A BGP speaker sends 19-byte keep-alive messages every 60 seconds to maintain the connection. Among routing protocols, BGP is unique in using TCP as its transport protocol.